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Article (PDF Available) in Psychology today · February with 1, . Time Magazine's cover recently alerted the public to the state of. Psychology Today Magazine. May By Pamela Weintraub. The Voice of Reason. Everyone engages in self-talk. But much depends on the way we do it. Psychology Today is a magazine published every two months in the United States. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 22, Retrieved April
A beloved hero of western farmers and frontiersmen, Jackson was the first nonaristocrat to become president. He was the first president to invite everyday folk to the inaugural reception. To the horror of the political elite, throngs tracked mud through the White House and broke dishes and decorative objects. Washington insiders reviled Jackson.
They saw him as intemperate, vulgar, and stupid. Opponents called him a jackass—the origin of the donkey symbol for the Democratic Party.
Jackson fought at least 14 duels in his life, leaving him with bullet fragments lodged throughout his body. On the last day of his presidency, he admitted to only two regrets: that he was never able to shoot Henry Clay or hang John C. The similarities between Andrew Jackson and Donald Trump do not end with their aggressive temperaments and their respective positions as Washington outsiders. Jackson was an angry populist, they believed—a wild-haired mountain man who channeled the crude sensibilities of the masses.
Authoritarianism is also associated with suspiciousness of the humanities and the arts, and with cognitive rigidity, militaristic sentiments, and Christian fundamentalism. When individuals with authoritarian proclivities fear that their way of life is being threatened, they may turn to strong leaders who promise to keep them safe—leaders like Donald Trump.
In a national poll conducted recently by the political scientist Matthew MacWilliams, high levels of authoritarianism emerged as the single strongest predictor of expressing political support for Donald Trump. As the social psychologist Jesse Graham has noted, Trump appeals to an ancient fear of contagion, which analogizes out-groups to parasites, poisons, and other impurities.
On a daily basis, Trump seems to experience more disgust, or at least to say he does, than most people do. The authoritarian mandate is to ensure the security, purity, and goodness of the in-group—to keep the good stuff in and the bad stuff out.
In the s, white settlers in Georgia and other frontier areas lived in constant fear of American Indian tribes. They resented the federal government for not keeping them safe from what they perceived to be a mortal threat and a corrupting contagion. Responding to these fears, President Jackson pushed hard for the passage of the Indian Removal Act, which eventually led to the forced relocation of 45, American Indians.
At least 4, Cherokees died on the Trail of Tears, which ran from Georgia to the Oklahoma territory. An American strand of authoritarianism may help explain why the thrice-married, foul-mouthed Donald Trump should prove to be so attractive to white Christian evangelicals. As Jerry Falwell Jr. Trump appeals to an ancient fear of contagion, which analogizes out-groups to parasites and poisons. When my research associates and I once asked politically conservative Christians scoring high on authoritarianism to imagine what their life and their world might have been like had they never found religious faith, many described utter chaos—families torn apart, rampant infidelity and hate, cities on fire, the inner rings of hell.
By contrast, equally devout politically liberal Christians who scored low on authoritarianism described a barren world depleted of all resources, joyless and bleak, like the arid surface of the moon.
For authoritarian Christians, a strong faith—like a strong leader—saves them from chaos and tamps down fears and conflicts. Donald Trump is a savior, even if he preens and swears, and waffles on the issue of abortion.
You must project bigness. Cognitive-science research suggests that people rely on personal schemata to process new social information efficiently and effectively. A key to successful decision making is knowing what your schemata are, so that you can change them when you need to. Trump, shown here at the opening of the Taj Mahal casino in Atlantic City in , is dispositionally inclined to high-risk, high-reward decisions, as are many extroverts.
His personality is similar to George W. He never quit fighting. He promised that its construction would create 1, permanent jobs in the Aberdeen area, but to date, only about have been documented. On the campaign trail, he has often said that he would simply pick up the phone and call people—say, a CEO wishing to move his company to Mexico—in order to make propitious deals for the American people.
For example, a contributor to Lyndon B. Obama, by contrast, has been accused of failing to put in the personal effort needed to forge close and productive relationships with individual members of Congress. Having said that, deal making is an apt description for only some presidential activities, and the modern presidency is too complex to rely mainly on personal relationships. Presidents work within institutional frameworks that transcend the idiosyncratic relationships between specific people, be they heads of state, Cabinet secretaries, or members of Congress.
The most-effective leaders are able to maintain some measure of distance from the social and emotional fray of everyday politics. Keeping the big picture in mind and balancing a myriad of competing interests, they cannot afford to invest too heavily in any particular relationship. For U.
It has to be much more. Trump has hinted at other means through which he might address the kind of complex, long-standing problems that presidents face. But there are a lot of different voices—and interests—that have to be considered when working toward solutions. This involves getting people into a room and negotiating compromises until everyone walks out of that room on the same page.
Amid the polarized political rhetoric of , it is refreshing to hear a candidate invoke the concept of compromise and acknowledge that different voices need to be heard. It is possible that Trump could prove to be adept as the helmsman of an unwieldy government whose operation involves much more than striking deals—but that would require a set of schemata and skills that appear to lie outside his accustomed way of solving problems.
His Motivations For psychologists, it is almost impossible to talk about Donald Trump without using the word narcissism. As nearly everybody knows, Trump has attached his name to pretty much everything he has ever touched—from casinos to steaks to a so-called university that promised to teach students how to become rich.
It was the toughest day of his own life, Trump began. The story provides the mythical source for the modern concept of narcissism, which is conceived as excessive self-love and the attendant qualities of grandiosity and a sense of entitlement. Highly narcissistic people are always trying to draw attention to themselves. Repeated and inordinate self-reference is a distinguishing feature of their personality.
Narcissism in presidents is a double-edged sword.
What does Donald Trump really want? What are his most valued life goals? Narcissus wanted, more than anything else, to love himself. People with strong narcissistic needs want to love themselves, and they desperately want others to love them too—or at least admire them, see them as brilliant and powerful and beautiful, even just see them, period.
The fundamental life goal is to promote the greatness of the self, for all to see. Accordingly, some experts insist that narcissistic motivations cover up an underlying insecurity.
But others argue that there is nothing necessarily compensatory, or even immature, about certain forms of narcissism. Consistent with this view, I can find no evidence in the biographical record to suggest that Donald Trump experienced anything but a loving relationship with his mother and father. Narcissistic people like Trump may seek glorification over and over, but not necessarily because they suffered from negative family dynamics as children.
Rather, they simply cannot get enough. Ever since grade school, Trump has wanted to be No. Attending New York Military Academy for high school, he was relatively popular among his peers and with the faculty, but he did not have any close confidants. As both a coach and an admiring classmate recall in The Trumps, Donald stood out for being the most competitive young man in a very competitive environment.
His need to excel—to be the best athlete in school, for example, and to chart out the most ambitious future career—may have crowded out intense friendships by making it impossible for him to show the kind of weakness and vulnerability that true intimacy typically requires.
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Whereas you might think that narcissism would be part of the job description for anybody aspiring to become the chief executive of the United States, American presidents appear to have varied widely on this psychological construct. In a Psychological Science research article, behavioral scientists ranked U. Franklin D. We are moral hypocrites.
It pays to be wary of those who are the quickest and loudest in condemning the moral failings of others — the chances are that moral preachers are as guilty themselves, but take a far lighter view of their own transgressions. In one study , researchers found that people rated the exact same selfish behaviour giving themselves the quicker and easier of two experimental tasks on offer as being far less fair when perpetuated by others.
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These self-serving double standards could even explain the common feeling that incivility is on the increase — recent research shows that we view the same acts of rudeness far more harshly when they are committed by strangers than by our friends or ourselves.
We are all potential trolls. As anyone who has found themselves in a spat on Twitter will attest, social media might be magnifying some of the worst aspects of human nature, in part due to the online disinhibition effect, and the fact that anonymity easy to achieve online is known to increase our inclinations for immorality.
While research has suggested that people who are prone to everyday sadism a worryingly high proportion of us are especially inclined to online trolling, a study published last year revealed how being in a bad mood, and being exposed to trolling by others, double the likelihood of a person engaging in trolling themselves.
In fact, initial trolling by a few can cause a snowball of increasing negativity, which is exactly what researchers found when they studied reader discussion on CNN. We favour ineffective leaders with psychopathic traits.
Take the survey of financial leaders in New York that found they scored highly on psychopathic traits but lower than average in emotional intelligence. A meta-analysis published this summer concluded that there is indeed a modest but significant link between higher trait psychopathy and gaining leadership positions, which is important since psychopathy also correlates with poorer leadership.
Actions like brushing our teeth, or walking, is also stored in our minds as memory. However, since Henry was still able to brush his teeth, when given a tooth- brush, and walk, it proved that our brain is divided so each part serves a specifc funtion. Psychology Today Magazine Uploaded by yashidk. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles.
Tulving, E. Oxford University Press. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Mariel Josef Sabigan. Virender Mehta.On the international front, he believed that oppressed people everywhere could enjoy the same kind of God-given rights—self-determination and freedom—if they could be emancipated from their oppressors.
If all human beings are, by their very nature, social actors, then Donald Trump seems to be more so—superhuman, in this one primal sense.
What is the narrative he has constructed in his own mind about how he came to be the person he is today? Fred Trump made a fortune building, owning, and managing apartment complexes in Queens and Brooklyn.
Actions like brushing our teeth, or walking, is also stored in our minds as memory. Promoted Comments.
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